Cameras can not always capture all the information in a scene, either losing detail in the highlights or in the shadows.The problems of highlight clipping and digital noise and problems only associated with digital photography rather than with film. They are the opposite ends of the tonal scale, 0 being black and 255 being white. These define what is known as the dynamic range of the camera.
The dynamic range of a scene in the number of stops between the brightest highlight and the darkest shadow. The dynamic range of a camera is the number of stops it can capture in one exposed frame. Knowing the dynamic range of your camera can help overcome a lot of exposure problems.
The link below went into greater detail and has helped me understand more what dynamic range means and what other problems can occur.